Attached are my statistics101 problems that are to be completed and DONE (see attachment). By completing these problems you will be providing me with a valuable study guide to use so I will be able to solve problems such as these in the future.

PLEASE make sure to DO ALL OF THE PROBLEMS. Do not make the EXPLANATIONS complicated on how the ANSWERS were found.

I need something short and sweet and to the point to INCLUDE the ANSWER to ALL OF THE PROBLEMS. Of Course all of the answers need to be correct and easy to understand.

Please make sure to do all of the indicated problems.

I want you to know that I appreciate the work and ALWAYS give positive feedback for a job well done.

Please find the solutions attached.

STATISTICS PROBLEMS

Text Book

Gravetter, F. J., & Wallnau, L. B. (2009). Statistics for the behavioral sciences (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. (ISBN: 0495602205 or 9780495602200)

Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Feeney, B. C. (2009). A simple guide to SPSS for Windows for version 16.0 (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. (ISBN: 9780495597667)

Chapter 1

4. A researcher plans to compare two treatment conditions by measuring one sample in treatment 1 and a second sample in treatment 2. The researcher will then compare the scores for the two treatments. If the is a big difference between the two groups of scores,

a. Briefly explain how the difference may have been caused by the treatments.

Due to large difference in the effectiveness of treatments

b. Briefly explain how the difference simply may be sampling error.

If both the samples are taken from same population but neither sample will have the same characteristics as the population.

8. Downs and Abwender (2002) found neurological deficits in soccer players who are routinely hit on the head with soccer balls with swimmers, who are also athletes but who are not regularly hit in the head. Is this an example of an experimental or nonexperimental study?

Soluiton:

Non-experimental study

14. Four scales of measurement were introduced in this chapter: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

a. What additional information is obtained from measurements on an ordinal scale compared to measurements on a nominal scale?

The categories in ordinal scale have names like in nominal scale but in addition these categories are organized in a fixed order corresponding to the differences of magnitude.

b. What additional information is obtained from measurements on an interval scale compared to measurements on an ordinal scale?

The categories in interval scale are organized in categories like in ordinal scale but categories are intervals which are exactly of same size.

c. What additional information is obtained from measurements on a ratio scale compared to measurements on an interval scale?

The difference is in the feature of absolute zero point. For example in temperature 0 kelvin.

18. For the following scores, find the value of each expression:

X

6

1

3

4

2

a. ∑X = 6 + 1 + 3 + 4 + 2 = 16

b. ∑X2 = 36 + 1 + 9 +16 + 4 = 66

c. ∑(X + 1) = ∑X + 5 = 16 + 5 = 21

d. ∑(X + 1)^2 = 7^2 + 2^2 + 4^2 + 5^2 + 3^2 = 49 + 4 + 16 + 25 + 9 = 103

22. Use summation notation to express each of the following calculations:

a. Add 1 point to each score, then add the resulting values.

Answer: ∑(X + 1)

b. Add 1 point to each score and square the result, then add the squared values.

Answer: ∑(X + 1)^2

c. Add the scores and square the sum, then subtract 3 points from the squared value.

Answer: (∑X)^2 – 3

Chapter 2

2. Find the value requested for the distribution of scores in the following table.

X f

5 2

4 2

3 4

2 0

1 1

a. n = ∑f = 2 + 2 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 9

That means there are two 5’s, two 4’s, …

The solution solves a simple statistics problems at entry level.