Although this is the requirements, I am asking for help understanding the concepts requested of the teacher and a better understanding of the content regarding data collection, observation, and interviewing.
Over the past few weeks, you have been introduced to two common datacollection techniques used by qualitative researchers: observation and interviewing. For this assignment, you will be asked to consider data collection techniques for your qualitative research plan and think about how you will manage the data that you would collect.
To prepare for this Application:
• Consider the kinds of data that would be most useful and relevant for your qualitative research plan.
• Consider whether observation would be an appropriate way to collect datafor your qualitative study. Why or why not? If yes, what would you need to consider (legal or ethical issues, bias, context, etc.)?
• Consider whether interviewing is an appropriate way to collect data for your qualitative study. Why or why not? If yes, what would you need to consider (legal or ethical issues, bias, context, etc.)? What questions would you ask? How do you know these are good and appropriate questions for your research? What kind of interviewing protocol would you need to develop?
• For the data collection techniques you would use, think about what data management techniques you would employ. How would you organize your data? How could a software package such as NVivo assist you with managing your data?
o Remember, you are not expected to collect data for the qualitative research plan, only to plan out what could be done.
• Craft a 3- to 5-page paper in which you do the following:
o Recommend data collection and data management techniques appropriate for your qualitative research plan.
Remember, you are not expected to collect data for the qualitative research plan, only to plan out what could be done.
o Explain how NVivo could be used to assist with data organization and management.
Data Collection and Management Techniques for a Qualitative Research Plan
The most common sources of data collection in qualitative research are interviews, observations, and review of documents (Creswell, 2009; Locke, Silverman, & Spirduso, 2010; Marshall & Rossman, 1999). The methodology is planned and pilot-tested before the study. Creswell (2003) places the data-collecting procedures into four categories: observations, interviews, documents, and audiovisual materials. He provides a concise table of the four methods, the options within each type, the advantages of each type, and the limitations of each.
We noted previously that the researcher typically has some type of framework (sub purposes perhaps) that determines and guides the nature of the data collection. For example, one phase of the research might pertain to the manner in which expert and non-expert sport performers perceive various aspects of a game. This phase could involve having the athlete describe his or her perceptions of what is taking place in a specific scenario. A second phase of the study might focus on the interactive thought processes and decisions of the two groups of athletes while they are playing. The data for this phase could be obtained from filming them in action and then interviewing them while they are watching their performances on videotape. Still another aspect of the study could be directed at the knowledge structure of the participants, which could be determined by a researcher-constructed instrument.
You should not expect qualitative data collection to be quick. It is time intensive. Collecting good data takes time (Locke, Silverman, & Spirduso, 2010), and quick interviews or short observations are unlikely to help you gain more understanding. If you are doing qualitative research, you must plan to be in the environment for enough time to collect good data and understand the nuance of what is occurring.
The interview is undoubtedly the most common source of data in qualitative studies. The person-to-person format is most prevalent, but occasionally group interviews and focus groups are conducted. Interviews range from the highly structured style, in which questions are determined before the interview, to the open-ended, conversational format. In qualitative research, the highly structured format is used primarily to gather sociodemographic information. For the most part, however, interviews are more open ended and less structured (Merriam, 2001). Frequently, the interviewer asks the same questions of all the participants, but the order of the questions, the exact wording, and the type of follow-up questions may vary considerably.
Being a good interviewer requires skill and experience. We emphasized earlier that the researcher must first establish rapport with the respondents. If the participants do not trust the researcher, they will not open up and describe their true feelings, thoughts, and intentions. Complete rapport is established over time as people get to know and trust one another. An important skill in interviewing is being able to ask questions in such a way that the respondent believes that he or she can talk freely.
Kirk and Miller (1986) described their field research in Peru, where they tried to learn how much urban, lower-middle-class people knew about coca, the organic source of cocaine. Coca is legal and widely available in Peru. In their initial attempts to get the people to tell them about coca, they received the same culturally approved answers from all the respondents. Only after they changed their style to asking less sensitive questions …
The solution examines the data collection and management techniques for a qualitative research plan. The expert considers the kinds of data that would be most useful and relevant for qualitative research plan.