Lab 2: Bird Beak Adaptations
Post Lab Questions
The following will be submitted via Blackboard.
1. For each scenario, calculate the average and standard deviation of each beak (based on the 4 reps). Create a
bar graph for each scenario (8 graphs total). Each bar graph should have a title, figure caption, axis labels, and
standard deviation bars on the graph (PLEASE ASK IF YOU DO NOT KNOW HOW TO DO ANY OF THIS,
I AM GLAD TO ASSIST!). For each scenario, which was the most efficient beak?
Example data table:
Beak Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 3 Rep 4 Average
chopsticks 10 11 13 9 10.75 1.707825128
tweeezers 5 6 6 6 5.75 0.5
tongs 14 16 18 20 17 2.581988897
Example graph with labeled axes/title, average and standard deviation (use ‘custom error’ bars not ‘+/- 1 SD’
2. Using a t-test (2 tails, equal distribution) for each scenario, was there a significant difference between beaks?
(Note, you will need to compare beak 1/beak 2, beak 2/beak 3, and beak 1/beak 3 to see which are significantly
different!) (PLEASE ASK IF YOU DO NOT KNOW HOW TO DO ANY OF THIS, I AM GLAD TO
3. In each scenario, was there one beak that was a clear ‘winner’ and was this the one you predicted would be
best? Why or why not?
4. In terms of adaptation, how does having many variations in beak type of honeycreepers help keep the birds
alive and favored in their specific environment?
5. An old saying claims that "a jack of all trades is a master of none." Explain this concept with reference to the
bird beaks. Some of the beaks were repeated throughout the scenarios (i.e., tweezers, chopsticks). If the beak
was used to pick up multiple ‘prey’ items (food), was it as successful in each scenario? Why or why not?