11. For the following scores, find the (a) mean, (b) median, (c) sum of squared

deviations, (d) variance, and (e) standard deviation:

2, 2, 0, 5, 1, 4, 1, 3, 0, 0, 1, 4, 4, 0, 1, 4, 3, 4, 2, 1, 0

12. For the following scores, find the (a) mean, (b) median, (c) sum of squared

deviations, (d) variance, and (e) standard deviation:

1,112; 1,245; 1,361; 1,372; 1,472

13. For the following scores, find the (a) mean, (b) median, (c) sum of squared

deviations, (d) variance, and (e) standard deviation:

3.0, 3.4, 2.6, 3.3, 3.5, 3.2

14. On a standard measure of hearing ability, the mean is 300 and the standard deviation

is 20. Give the Z scores for persons who score (a) 340, (b) 310, and

(c) 260. Give the raw scores for persons whose Z scores on this test are (d) 2.4,

(e) 1.5, (f) 0, and (g) -4.5.

15. A person scores 81 on a test of verbal ability and 6.4 on a test of quantitative

ability. For the verbal ability test, the mean for people in general is 50 and the

standard deviation is 20. For the quantitative ability test, the mean for people in

general is 0 and the standard deviationis 5. Which is this person’s stronger ability:

verbal or quantitative? Explain your answer to a person who has never had a

course in statistics.

16. A psychologist interested in political behavior measured the square footage of the

desks in the official office of four U.S. governors and of four chief executive officers

(CEOs) of major U.S. corporations. The figures for the governors were 44, 36,

52, and 40 square feet. The figures for the CEOs were 32, 60, 48, and 36 square

feet. (a) Figure the means and standard deviations for the governors and for the

CEOs. (b) Explain, to a person who has never had a course in statistics, what you

have done. (c) Note the ways in which the means and standard deviations differ,

and speculate on the possible meaning of these differences, presuming that they

are representative of U.S. governors and large corporations’ CEOs in general.

21. Payne (2001) gave participants a computerized task in which they first see a

face and then a picture of either a gun or a tool. The task was to press one button

if it was a tool and a different one if it was a gun. Unknown to the participants

while they were doing the study, the faces served as a “prime” (something that

starts you thinking a particular way); half the time they were of a black person

and half the time of a white person. Table 2-9 shows the means and standard deviations

for reaction times (the time to decide if the picture is of a gun or a tool)

after either a black or white prime. (In Experiment 2, participants were told to decide

as fast as possible.) Explain the results to a person who has never had a course in

statistics. (Be sure to explain some specific numbers as well as the general principle

of the mean and standard deviation.)

22. Suppose you want to conduct a surveyof the attitude of psychologygraduate students

studying clinical psychology toward psychoanalytic methods of psychotherapy.

One approach would be to contact every psychology graduate student you

know and ask them to fill out a questionnaireabout it. (a) What kind of sampling

method is this? (b) What is a major limitation of this kind of approach?

25. You are conducting a survey at a college with 800 students, 50 faculty members,

and 150 administrators. Each of these 1,000 individuals has a single listing in

the campus phone directory. Suppose you were to cut up the directory and pull

out one listing at random to contact. What is the probabilityit would be (a) a student,

(b) a faculty member, (c) an administrator, (d) a faculty member or administrator,

and (e) anyone except an administrator? (f) Explain your answers to

someone who has never had a course in statistics.

The solution provides detailed step-by step calculations of the given problems. Some of the calculations have also been performed in EXCEL for better understanding.